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Where will our sales leaders come from?

In Business Education, DCU Business School, Dublin City University, Entrepreneurship, Ireland, Masters Education, Sales, Theo Lynn on September 26, 2010 at 11:30 am

Last week, the stigma of “sales” was confirmed to be alive and well to my dismay. Of 150 new postgraduates, only a couple would admit to having considered a career in sales. To a certain audience, “sales” is not “cool” or for the matter worthy of “academic attention.” And yet at the crux of any business, if there are no sales, there is no business.

My interest in sales education really started following my experience in Educational Multimedia Group in the late nineties and early noughties. I was then and remain now convinced that sales can be studied academically and indeed is worthy of such study. On joining DCU Business School, I retained this interest and began looking at the area in more detail. At that time, GrowingCo had just surveyed 218 executives in the Chicago area.  They found:

  • 38% of mid-market organizations (defined as having greater than $2.5 million in annual revenues) lack internal agreement on the role of marketing
  • 85% of sales forces have never been exposed to their companies’ marketing strategy or marketing plans.

The survey emphasised the negative impact of poor coordination of sales and marketing activities and to some degree highlighted the difference between the functions. Marketing and sales are intrinsically linked and the success of a sales effort is impacted heavily by the marketing effort – therefore incentives should be aligned. Interestingly in other surveys on sales management perception, one finds that senior management typically view their sales team performance as less than perfect. In Forum Corporation’s survey of 111 senior sales executives in 96 major corporations across 17 industries around the world, the average grade was 7 out of 10 or a C- in this context (although this could be a first class honours in Ireland!). Superior sales forces had no single differentiator – they performed better across the full spectrum of management, process and skills. A 2004 Accenture survey found 56% of 178 executives saw their salesforce performance as average, worse than normal or catastrophic.

Soon after, in 2006, the Harvard Business Review published a special double issue on “Sales” which served to highlight the dearth of academic research and highlight the area of sales management.  This is not the first time academia has sought to highlight this problem, but merely the most high profile. As far back as 1979, the enigma of the study of sales management was recognised – selling costs account for the largest share of marketing expenditure and yet is one of the weakest areas of academic research (Bagozzi, 1979).

Things have not changed much. You rarely find robust dedicated modules let alone programmes on sales or sales strategy in business schools. And I would be surprised where such modules are delivered, faculty either deliver them or if they do, have any real practical and sustained experience in selling at an operational or more importantly a strategic level. Donaldson (1998) summarises the problems of studying sales management as

  1. Traditionally, the emphasis in sales management is on implementation and tactical operations rather than strategic planning and policy, which has been the prerogative of marketing.
  2. The difficulty of isolating the sales response function and its causes. Many factors other than selling effort affect sales response.
  3. A myopic view that behavioural relationships and interactions in selling are not amenable to classification or variables are impossible to measure.
  4. Many principles of sales organisation, deployment and motivation are based on “how to “ principles, some of which are difficult to assess or understand, for example how to overcome objections. Much of the data are highly specific and anecdotal.
  5. The terrain on which operations take place is continually changing (territories, personnel, customers).
  6. Much of the input on sales management issues comes from disparate areas of research, behavioural sciences, operations research and economics.
  7. Much study and evidence is US-based and these findings in empricial research do not remain intact across the Atlantic.

In fairness to HBR, since 2006 they have published on the subject regularly however has the wider business education system followed this lead? Do primary and secondary schools encourage students to pursue a career in sales? If they do, what university programmes can they take? Is there now an abundance of postgraduate Masters programmes for the sales leader? Unfortunately not.

While few business postgraduates, and specifically MBAs, might value a sales position as their post-MBA career entry point,  in practice, good CEOs place an emphasis on spending time in the field with the sales force, view sales teams as strategic resources and understand that sales is critical to their personal career and their organisation’s success. Sales literally is where the money is…..but marketing sounds better to postgrads and….parents.

A couple of years ago, one of my postgrads and I surveyed a small group of students and sales professionals on their perceptions of sales as a career choice. Unsurprisingly, sales was not the most attractive career but for those interested, it was seen as a career that was potentially well paid and where earnings were very related to effort. Yes for sales professionals, one of the main reasons for the choice of a career in sales was that it didn’t require one to work weekends. Pay and control (whether related to effort or creativity) remained important but flexibility more so. These are probably not career attributes we “sell” in school or as parents for our future workforce.

Let’s face facts – it can be a brutal job. It is probably the most accountable job there is – you literally cannot hide from the numbers. Are we developing a generation of business graduates afraid of such brutal accountability?

In today’s post-growth economy, sales should be a huge focus. However, the investment in sales versus other market supports seems comparatively small. In many of the business networks, there are often experienced accounting professionals offering advice to SMEs to control costs and management cashflow, and this is very important, but there are few experienced sales professionals offering advice on how to grow sales.  And they’re not in academia either. And maybe this is the problem.

We need vision not just in R&D-based innovation but across all organisational processes. We want Ireland to be centre for excellence in bio-tech, ICT, financial services and many other sectors. Who is going to sell these products and services?Sales generates taxes. Ireland could be a global centre for excellence in sales.  If we aren’t going to be, someone else will. And that will be to our detriment.

PS – we now do deliver strategic sales workshops and personal selling modules in DCU Business School covering areas such as channel selection, sales models and process, tendering, selling tools, sales competencies, staff selection and sales team structure, rewards and incentive design etc etc. These are delivered by the Marketing Group.

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Selecting an Internet Business Model – Reflections on the Blurry Line between Internet Business Models and Strategy

In Advertising, Business Education, Business Models, Business Plans, DCU Business School, Dublin City University, E-commerce, eBay, Elearning, Entrepreneurship, GrooveShark, Groupon, Internet, iTunes, Microsoft Xbox, Netflix, Salesforce.com, Spotify, Subscription, Subsidy, Theo Lynn, Transaction, Two Sided Networks, World of Warcraft on September 18, 2010 at 11:32 am

Last week, I had the opportunity to spend a two days with my colleague, Dr. Laurent Muzellec, who is currently teaching in ESSCA while on sabbatical from DCU Business School. Laurent had asked me to give a guest lecture on internet business models to some of his ESSCA taking a course on “Web Business Models and Strategy”. Laurent has been involved with ESSCA for a few years and indeed his Lipdub exercise from a previous class there has gone on to epic proportions on YouTube and is now a best practice case of student marketing for higher education – see http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Pw7t4f-ZV3E.

ESSCA, Paris

ESSCA, Paris

The topic was a curious one. As Laurent and I discussed it over dinner last Wednesday, it became apparent that much of what we know refer to as internet business models are influenced by concepts previously applied in the strategy domain – network effects (see Eisenmann et al for strategies for two sided networks), lock-in, switching costs, long tail (power laws), cost leadership, differentiation (and by extension, the economics domain) etc. As we discussed various perspectives and articles, it became apparent the line between internet business models and strategy is increasingly blurry. Should we define internet business models in the context of how a business creates, captures and delivers value or how it generates profits (implying revenue generation and cost management)? The former would seem to bleed in to strategy – after all many companies have the same business model but achieve different levels of success. I left Laurent’s apartment, very late, with my mind in flux to what I should present.

Luckily, Paris is the ideal place for burning the midnight oil…literally. I reviewed some old presentations and articles and found that many of the articles Laurent and I had discussed, although recent in academic terms, were clearly out of date already – they did not foresee the rapid rise and adoption of social networking and the increasing ubiquity of computing, bandwidth and storage. It is easy to forget that Google and Facebook are still relatively recent phenomena. However, the business models hadn’t changed as fundamental in the last 2-3 years as I had first thought – it was more that the adoptions weightings had. The core Internet models are still – transaction, subscription and subsidy models and you can find them everywhere and in particular in the content sector e.g. videogames (gamestop, world of warcraft, farmville) and music (iTunes, Spotify, GrooveShark).

Transactions are still the bread and butter of many of the big players – eBay, Amazon, iTunes although there are new flavours e.g. Groupon. As well as network effects, it seems to me innovation in transaction models over the last couple of years has related to assurance models. Central to eBay is its rating system and trust network which provides assurance on the provenance of merchants; to some extent PayPal provides assurance for both merchants and buyers on transactions. iTunes provides a technological assurance through FairPlay by limiting use of tracks on defined number of devices. Groupon provides a broker-based assurance by making sure merchants honour deals provided the minimum threshold is achieved. Interesting, microtransactions (where transactions are measured in cents not dollars) still have not caught on; although one might argue iTunes and indeed AdWords and other advertising transactions epitomise this model.

Salesforce.com remains the poster boy of enterprise subscription models, and in particular Software as a Service. Its achievement in reaching over $1bn in revenues is to be lauded. There is no doubt their business model is a benchmark for now and the future but for whom. Salesforce’ customer base is very specific – salespeople and their support staff turn over regularly, often work at home or on the road, need up to date data at all times etc etc. Employees in HR or Accouniting do not have the same profile. Nonetheless, many companies are trying to adapt their traditional packaged software model to SaaS. Earlier in the summer, IDC forecast that less than 15 percent of net-new software firms coming to market would ship a packaged CD product and by 2014, about 34 percent of all new business software purchases would be delivered via SaaS, representing 14.5% of worldwide software spending. But the licensed/packaged software market hasn’t gone away – its still worth $300bn+ and many large and small companies alike are still uncomfortable with cloud based services. Why? Well, the larger software companies are still making a lot of money from packaged products and the transition to cloud based subscriptions has to be managed carefully. Subscription models get rid of the need for built-in obsolescence but also change the focus from repeat orders and upgrades to managing churn (or reducing non-renewal rates). They also reduce upfront licensing fees, customisation and service level fees as the customers move from a perpetual to a time-based subscription model. A wholesale change from packaged perpetual software licenses to annual subscriptions would reduce short-term revenues per customer. Lower revenues impacts earnings; earnings impact share price. SaaS means a lot of change from being product-focussed to customer-focussed, short-term revenues to long-term revenues, average revenue per customer to average revenue per user etc etc. But SaaS isn’t the only subscription derivative – e-learning companies have used rental models before Internet Delivery (see SkillSoft nee Smartforce nee CBT Group) and Netflix is doing an admirable job with DVDs. People tend to forget that their mobile service, their digital TV service and many other services using digital networks are “Internet” business models.

For me, subsidy-based models are the most interesting. Advertising dominates this class of business model. This remains primarily a B2C model – there is little evidence of enterprise acceptance of advertising-backed software and there remains policy issues in relation to advertising/sponsorship based models for education and other public sector sales. However, for those with the time, financial and technical resources, it is possible to fund your business with advertising. I, personally, also think this is a perfectly acceptable way to fund access to software particularly where no other funding is available e.g. in developing countries. However,  selling advertising services (such as Facebook Ads and Google Adwords) is different than funding your business through advertising. But advertising isn’t the only form of subsidy – in the public sector, government subsidises commercial software – and in the NGO sector, foundations, governments and other agencies subsidise various initiatives including open education resources etc. It should be noted a few years ago, we assumed that there would be consolidation in digital advertising platforms and thus advertising-supported business models and choice would be less complex.  The rapid adoption of social networking sites and services has fragmented  – Facebook ads, LinkedIn Direct Ads and others compete with Microsoft Bing Advertising, Yahoo Advertising, and Google Adwords for advertising dollars while Twitter and others generate traffic for free. Selecting your advertising platform is getting more complicated but managing campaigns is more complex still. The number of Internet businesses that can generate enough traffic to sustain a business of any scale remains limited.  This does not mean it is not happening, sites like Grooveshark, seem to be making advertising-funded services work for the music sector.

So how do you pick one? It largely depends on your market and how they perceive key elements of any given business model and again these lie in conventional business academic literature – elasticity, price, awareness, customer type etc. For example, enterprise customers know and understand transaction and licensing-based business models – they are familiar, they know the conditions, the quality and service expectations, and know the procurement dance (discounts for user volume, end of month and end of quarter pressure etc) and they control their data and uptime. They are comfortable with doing business this way. Businesses providing software funded by advertising introduce more questions than answers for enterprise buyers – will the advertising be appropriate? will it distract employees? what are the conditions and level of support (if it is “free”)? Individual users are happy to deal with this ambiguity, enterprise customers are not. Subscription-based models and in particular, the SaaS model play the middle ground. It can be argued that enterprise customers (and individuals) get enterprise software at lower cost, better service, less technical headaches with terms, conditions and procurement process that they know. They get a lot; they need to just give some trust….not the easiest thing to do even at the best of times.

Can you blend them? Yes, and this can be a source of competitive advantage. Microsoft have blended different models in their games business. You effectively license an XBOX and can then buy or subscribe to software through XBOX-Live Marketplace etc. There are free games too. Similarly I note Spotify allows you access some services with ads, a no-ads subscription service and a service where you can purchase MP3s for download and use outside of Spotify. Indeed, the Spotify model, may in time, challenge iTunes and be adopted by other media creators and aggregators; it provides a straightforward framework that addresses all consumer preferences. But this depends on their capacity to negotiate with the media rights owners worldwide (and not territory by territory) and defend against Apple at the same time.

So where does strategy come in to it? Well you can replicate any business model but this does not business success make. You still have to find a way of satisfying unfulfilled (or unknown) needs of a given market segment better than the incumbents, profitably and ideally uniquely. And that is the trick – profitably and uniquely. Whether it is one, two or each of operational effectiveness, customer targeting or innovation, successful companies have to do something better than the competition.  With Internet business models, the same rules of marketing, economics, finance and strategy largely apply – segmentation, targeting, differentiation etc, etc, etc, but the successful companies move fast and tweak continuously and that is critical. They tweak digital rights management, delivery efficiency, payment options, payment process etc. The more things are different, the more they stay the same….just accelerated and more-and-more slightly left of centre.

Oh yeah, what about “free” business models? They don’t truly exist – someone has to pay.
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DCU Business School Practicum Day: At the crossroads of academia and practice

In Business Education, Business Plans, DCU Business School, Digital Marketing, Dublin City University, Entrepreneurship, Masters Education, MBS in Marketing, MSc in Business Management, Next Generation Management, Practicum, Theo Lynn, Uncategorized on August 31, 2010 at 2:50 pm

Last Friday (27 August 2010), we held the first DCU Business School Practicum Day. Starting at 8.30am, students on the MSc in Business Management and MBS in Marketing programmes displayed “research” posters, presented and answered questions regarding their major summer assignment, a group practicum.

A View From Above - some of the poster displays at DCU Business School's Practicum Day 2010

A View From Above - some of the poster displays at DCU Business School's Practicum Day 2010

A practicum is an assignment designed to give students supervised practical application of previously studied theory. In DCU Business School, we offer MBS in Marketing and MSc in Business Management students the choice of undertaking a individual dissertation, which is largely an academic piece of research, or a group practicum. We source practicums from a wide range of organisations, business and not-for-profit, and initial ideas for projects are presented to students via Moodle in February. The students make proposals for these projects and start working on them in March. A report of work completed is submitted at the end of July. Later in August, student groups present their project for 25 minutes to two assessors who then question them on their project. Feedback is provided on this interview and students then present their “research poster” and present and answer questions from an audience of peers, faculty and other guests for 10-15 minutes.

Tiernan Kennedy presenting his group's work on the use of digital marketing for international student recruitment for DCU Language Services at DCU Business School Practicum Day 2010.

Tiernan Kennedy presenting his group's work on the use of digital marketing for international student recruitment for DCU Language Services at DCU Business School Practicum Day 2010.

This year 22 groups presented their projects, which fell in to four main themes:

  • Original business plans – business ideas that students have identified, research and prepared business plans for.
  • Irish e-Business Marketing – marketing projects for Irish e-businesses
  • International Marketing – marketing projects for Irish businesses typically involving an international aspect
  • Local Businesses and Projects – marketing practicums for organisations located on the Northside of Dublin

In addition, two MSc in E-commerce (Business) groups presented their original business plans relating to online mannequins and mobile apps. (The MSc in E-commerce (Business) is a jointly offered programme with the School of Computing and has a separate presentation day earlier in August.)

The Perigord Team fielding questions at the DCU Business School Practicum Day

The Perigord Team fielding questions at the DCU Business School Practicum Day

Overall the day was very enjoyable and interesting. It gave students both the opportunity to (i) clarify issues raised or unaddressed from their report and interview and to (ii) see and appreciate the efforts of their peers. As well as students, guests including faculty,  industry, other members of the University, incoming students and parents attended. All were impressed with the quality and volume of work. Unlike dissertations, students have the opportunity to address a real-world problem with a live client or indeed pursue their own business idea.

The Foodies' Edu-plate Nutritional Learning Toy

The Foodies' Edu-plate Nutritional Learning Toy

As every business and context was different, approaches and projects varied dramatically and really brought individual competences to the fore including ideation, industrial design and digital marketing skills. The DCU Business School Practicum Programme also gives the Business School an opportunity to engage with the wider business community and forms a central part of our civic engagement strategy.

This year the projects had a strong digital marketing element and the students ably demonstrated their skills in integrating a wide range of activities including:

Professor Darach Turley discusses practicums with Marie Mooney at DCU Business School Practicum Day 2010.

Professor Darach Turley discusses practicums with Marie Mooney at DCU Business School Practicum Day 2010.

However, digital marketing was not the only focus. Work on best practice tendering process, brand communications and sales training featured strongly as well as the financial planning skills inherent in any business plan. All groups presented well and confidently fielding difficult and awkward questions at times. It struck me that from a communications perspective, they had all managed to reduce over 10,000 word reports to 25 minute presentations then to 7 minute presentations and then ultimately one page – no mean feat! And at the end of the day, I certainly was satisfied that these students can hit the ground running in the job market with both the theory and practical skills need in today’s economy.

The roll of honour:

Theme 1 – Original Business Plans

  • Foodies – an educational toy for teaching good nutrition.
The Foodies Team - Deirdre Shanahan, Terence Bowden, Aisling Meleady and Sophie Gavard - at their poster. The group brought their multidisciplanary background to develop a business plan for an educational toy for teaching children good nutritional habits.

The Foodies Team - Deirdre Shanahan, Terence Bowden, Aisling Meleady and Sophie Gavard - at their poster. The group brought their multidisciplanary background to develop a business plan for an educational toy for teaching children good nutritional habits.

  • Online Fits – an 3-D body shape visualisation solution for online clothing retail sites.
Katia Zavershinskaya, David Gilchrist and Enkeled Uldedaj explain 3-D body shape visualisation in their Online Fits practicum project.

Katia Zavershinskaya, David Gilchrist and Enkeled Uldedaj explain 3-D body shape visualisation in their Online Fits practicum project.

  • Sample Circus – a circus-themed event-based tryvertising business for the cosmetics industry.
Cara Kennedy, Lyn Whyte, Martina Martinez-Cano and Caroline Mullen present their poster on Sample Circus at DCU Business School Practicum Day.

Cara Kennedy, Lyn Whyte, Martina Martinez-Cano and Caroline Mullen present their poster on Sample Circus at DCU Business School Practicum Day.

  • Dot Dot Dot Fashion Marketing – a digital marketing business for emerging fashion designers.
Stephen Conway, Valeria deFeudis, Emmy Rangel Calderas, Margaret Connolly and Nichola McHugh bring some style to the DCU Business School Practicum Day with Dot Dot Dot Fashion Marketing.

Stephen Conway, Valeria deFeudis, Emmy Rangel Calderas, Margaret Connolly and Nichola McHugh bring some style to the DCU Business School Practicum Day with Dot Dot Dot Fashion Marketing.

  • Afro Celt Airlines – an airline operating between Dublin and Lagos.
Afro-celt Airlines - Charles Okinji, John Keating,  Paul Tyrell and Stephen Osondu

Afro-celt Airlines - Charles Okinji, John Keating, Paul Tyrell and Stephen Osondu

  • SmartLED Lighting – a wholesale distributor of LED lighting solutions.
SmartLED Lighting (Keith Lawless, Andrea Bonnie, Una O'Neill, Lorna NiMhuiri and Ivan Casado) - a wholesale distributor of LED lighting solutions.

SmartLED Lighting (Keith Lawless, Andrea Bonnie, Una O'Neill, Lorna NiMhuiri and Ivan Casado) - a wholesale distributor of LED lighting solutions.

Theme 2 – Irish e-Business Marketing

  • Horseplay – digital marketing research, plan and pilot for horseplay.ie, a specialist equidae website.
Aoibhe Dunne and Conor Quinn display their Horseplay project poster.

Aoibhe Dunne and Conor Quinn display their Horseplay project poster.

  • Tenderme – digital marketing research, plan and pilot for tenderme.ie, an online tendering site.
John Cullen explains his practicum project on digital marketing for TenderMe to Professor Brian Leavy at the DCU Business School Practicum Day 2010

John Cullen explains his practicum project on digital marketing for TenderMe to Professor Brian Leavy at the DCU Business School Practicum Day 2010

Steven Nee and Khaild Hussein pose in front of their poster on their Digitary practicum.

Steven Nee and Khaild Hussein pose in front of their poster on their Digitary practicum.

  • HRLocker (UK and Ireland) – digital marketing research, plan and pilot on the Irish and UK market for HRLocker, an online HR software service.
Antonio Minuta and Carolann O'Sullivan pose in front of their research poster on HRLocker (UK and Ireland).

Antonio Minuta and Carolann O'Sullivan pose in front of their research poster on HRLocker (UK and Ireland).

Theme 3 – International Marketing

  • Toddler Holidays – digital marketing research, plan and pilot for Toddlerholidays.com, a France-based holiday home rental specialist for families with children under the age of 5.
Aideen Murphy and Ailish Tully present their findings on research and work completed for Toddler Holidays at DCU Business School Practicum Day.

Aideen Murphy and Ailish Tully present their findings on research and work completed for Toddler Holidays at DCU Business School Practicum Day.

  • HR Locker (North America) – market entry and digital marketing research on the US market for HRLocker, an online HR software service.
Simon McNally, Katie Murray, Kimberley Ramsay and Siobhan Buckley and their HRLocker (North America) poster at DCU Business School Practicum Day.

Simon McNally, Katie Murray, Kimberley Ramsay and Siobhan Buckley and their HRLocker (North America) poster at DCU Business School Practicum Day.

  • Dabl – market entry and localisation research on the Chinese market for Dabl, an online cardiovascular disease management system software developer.
Brian Joyce, Tien Nghiem, Guang Yang and Rachel Murray researched a Chinese market entry strategy for Dabl.ie for their practicum.

Brian Joyce, Tien Nghiem, Guang Yang and Rachel Murray researched a Chinese market entry strategy for Dabl.ie for their practicum.

Seyed Mohammad Amin Amirkhalili, Zara Walsh and Tiernan O'Kennedy in front of their research poster on international student recruitment for DCU Language Services.

Seyed Mohammad Amin Amirkhalili, Zara Walsh and Tiernan O'Kennedy in front of their research poster on international student recruitment for DCU Language Services.

  • Equinome – a marketing strategy for Equinome, an equine genetic testing service for the bloodstock industry.
The Equinome Group (Niall Clarke, Risteard Kinsella, Brendan Davis and David O'Rorke)

The Equinome Group (Niall Clarke, Risteard Kinsella, Brendan Davis and David O'Rorke)

Theme 4 – Local Businesses and Projects

  • Perigord – online communications strategy research, plan and pilot for Perigord, an online digital asset management service provider.
The Perigord Team - Ian Hemmingway, Rosemary Clancy, Eimear Murphy and Anton McMenamin

The Perigord Team - Ian Hemmingway, Rosemary Clancy, Eimear Murphy and Anton McMenamin

Damien O'Ceallaigh, Emer Keenan, Sheena O'Dowd and Roisin Lyons at their research poster at DCU Business School Practicum Day.

Damien O'Ceallaigh, Emer Keenan, Sheena O'Dowd and Roisin Lyons at their research poster at DCU Business School Practicum Day.

Niamh Downey and Laureen Morrissette present their poster on their North Dublin Chamber of Commerce practicum.

Niamh Downey and Laureen Morrissette present their poster on their North Dublin Chamber of Commerce practicum.

The DCU Civic Engagement Group - Cormac Hyland, Jenny Gaynor, Joanne Coughlan, Marie Mooney and Tom Muldowney.

The DCU Civic Engagement Group - Cormac Hyland, Jenny Gaynor, Joanne Coughlan, Marie Mooney and Tom Muldowney.

Aine Morris, Jenny O'Driscoll, Kate McGuinness and Diarmuid Murphy and their practicum poster on work completed for Printpac Services at DCU Business School Practicum Day.

Aine Morris, Jenny O'Driscoll, Kate McGuinness and Diarmuid Murphy and their practicum poster on work completed for Printpac Services at DCU Business School Practicum Day.

Tom Muldowney discusses the Timing Ireland practicum with Ed Dooley, Ciaran Dunne and David Fox at the DCU Business School Practicum Day.

Tom Muldowney discusses the Timing Ireland practicum with Ed Dooley, Ciaran Dunne and David Fox at the DCU Business School Practicum Day.

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